What is the appendix?
The appendix is a closed-ended, narrow tube that attaches to the cecum (the first part of the colon) like a worm. (The anatomical name for the appendix, vermiform appendix, means worm-like appendage.) The inner lining of the appendix produces a small amount of mucus that flows through the appendix and into the cecum. The wall of the appendix contains lymphatic tissue that is part of the immune system for making antibodies. Like the rest of the colon, the wall of the appendix also contains a layer of muscle.
What are the symptoms of appendicitis?
The main symptom of appendicitis is . The pain is at first diffuse and poorly localized, that is, not confined to one spot. (Poorly localized pain is typical whenever a problem is confined to the small intestine or colon, including the appendix.) The pain is so difficult to pinpoint that when asked to point to the area of the pain, most people indicate the location of the pain with a circular motion of their hand around the central part of their abdomen.
As appendiceal inflammation increases, it extends through the appendix to its
outer covering and then to the lining of the abdomen, a thin
membrane called the
peritoneum. Once the peritoneum
becomes inflamed, the pain changes and then can be localized clearly to one
small area. Generally, this area is between the front of the right hip bone and
the belly button. The exact point is named after Dr. Charles
McBurney--McBurney's point. If the appendix ruptures and infection spreads
throughout the abdomen, the pain becomes diffuse again as the entire lining of
the abdomen becomes inflamed.
Nausea and vomiting also occur in appendicitis and may be due to intestinal obstruction.
How is appendicitis treated?
Once a diagnosis of appendicitis is made, an appendectomy usually is performed. Antibiotics almost always are begun prior to surgery and as soon as appendicitis is suspected.
There is a small group of patients in whom the inflammation and infection of appendicitis remain mild and localized to a small area. The body is able not only to contain the inflammation and infection but to resolve it as well. These patients usually are not very ill and improve during several days of observation. This type of appendicitis is called "confined appendicitis" and may be treated with antibiotics alone. The appendix may or may not be removed at a later time.
On occasion, a person may not see their doctor until appendicitis with rupture has been present for many days or even weeks. In this situation, an abscess usually has formed, and the appendiceal perforation may have closed over. If the abscess is small, it initially can be treated with antibiotics; however, the abscess usually requires drainage. A drain usually is inserted with the aid of an ultrasound or CT scan that can determine the exact location of the abscess. The appendix is removed several weeks or months after the abscess has resolved. This is called an interval appendectomy and is done to prevent a second attack of appendicitis.